The guide is found at
-guides/inclusive-teaching and is based on the “deep teaching” model (Dewsbury, 2019), in which inclusive pedagogy involves being as reflective about our teaching as we expect our students to be about their learning. Kalonde, G. (2019). This means that some pedagogical choices may be effective in some circumstances and inappropriate in others. 16 January 2021 | Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. Inclusive teaching is most effective when the academic experience is based on relationships and dialogue. SWD learn what they can't do with provisions to help them achieve as well as typically learning students. Can this model be used to evaluate shifts in mindset? The evidence has been mounting for quite some time that the departure of underrepresented students from STEM majors results from reduced social belonging more than preparedness to handle the material (Seymour and Hewitt, 1997; Wilson et al., 2015). 1. Collectively, these motivational factors predict student engagement and academic achievement. Scientists are typically trained to make observations and gather data in a way that is as objective as possible. “Even though some of us might wish to conceptualize our classrooms as culturally neutral or might choose to ignore the cultural dimensions, students cannot check their sociocultural identities at the door, nor can they instantly transcend their current level of development… Therefore, it is important that the pedagogical strategies we employ in the classroom reflect an understanding of social identity development so that we can anticipate the tensions that might occur in the classroom and be proactive … With inclusion, the special educator's role has evolved to a consultant and/or co-teacher; and, opponents argue, co-teaching often results in the special educator becoming an overly paid instructional aide to the general educator. Many models for fostering an inclusive classroom promote diversifying the learning experience through various forms of active learning (Haak et al., 2011). Teacher Education: The process of preparing preservice teachers in the necessary instructional readiness for pedagogical and content knowledge to teach others in a classroom, online and blended environments for the sole purpose of becoming teachers in the K-12 schools. This is a significant, important, and time-consuming undertaking, however, and instructors may wish to begin by thinking more directly about the classroom experience. "Inclusive Education in Science Education: Are Science Teachers Using Inclusive Technologies in Science Classrooms?." 2, 22 November 2019 | CBE—Life Sciences Education, Vol. For example, some educational contexts might put students at risk for stereotype threat and/or reduced social belonging. This list will be continually updated with new resources. We define inclusivity as the practice of including people across differences, and we assert that inclusivity implies an intentional practice of recognizing and working to mitigate biases that lead to marginalization or exclusion of some people. How can we quantify the relationship between the development of classroom climate and pedagogical practices? 23, 9 January 2021 | Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, Vol. We gratefully acknowledge Adele Wolfson and Kristy Wilson for their thoughtful and very useful review. Over the past two decades, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty have been striving to make their teaching practices more inclusive and welcoming to the variety of students who enter college. If we ignore this context, we can fail to see how we are contributing to socially disconnected classroom environments. According to the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, “Women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minority groups—blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives—are underrepresented in science and engineering (S&E).” Strategies for Inclusive Science Education. The literature on social belonging for students suggests that the social belonging issues that make these services necessary also create psychological barriers for the very students who may need the services most. At least until students make authentic connections to their new learning community, it may be necessary to create a formative structure that demonstrates how these inclusive services can complement students’ academic mission. According to Freirean philosophy, dialoguing is the process by which the instructor humbly gets to know the students and their unique backgrounds (Freire, 1970). Inclusive education has been described as classrooms that all students attend and are welcomed by their neighborhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school regardless of disabilities. These accounts emphasize that success in these engagements relies on the degree to which the instructor is willing to merge the social and the professional self. A pedagogy based on dialoguing requires a different lens. In this essay, we describe an interactive guide created to help instructors develop inclusive teaching practices, with a particular focus on differences across race, ethnicity, and gender. Avoid asking for volunteers Boys may be more likely to raise their hands, call out Each of these essential points is supported by summaries of and links to articles that can inform these choices. Several of these are described in both the Classroom Climate and the Fostering a Sense of Belonging sections of the guide (https://lse At Ohio State, we value diversity in our faculty, staff and student body and we recognize the importance of diversity in the learning process. Inclusive approaches to science instruction can reposition youth as meaningful participants in science … Technology integration impacts learning in its usage, but has also been deemed as a broad umbrella that covers many diverse instructional modeling tools for pedagogy. More importantly, it is only through dialoguing and inclusion that STEM education can be fully reflective of the holistic and diverse human experience. Inclusive teaching strategies can be separated into two categories. However, many STEM faculty, even those at teaching-focused institutions, have been educated in a traditional environment that emphasizes research and may not include classroom teaching. When instructors engage with their students’ voices and acknowledge their students’ agency in learning, it transforms the ways in which we construct STEM classrooms. Inclusive teaching describes the range of approaches to teaching that consider the diverse needs and backgrounds of all students to create a learning environment where all students feel valued and where all students have equal access to learn. Inclusive Education in Science Education: Are Science Teachers Using Inclusive Technologies in Science Classrooms?. Categorizations of students into ethnic and other demographic bins have their uses and may be a useful starting point for instructors, but by themselves can serve to mask the nuances present in the students’ unique stories. Diversity is vital for the pursuit of knowledge in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), yet many STEM fields lack gender, ethnic, and disability diversity. Teaching for Retention in Science, Engineering, and Math Disciplines: A Guide for GSIs: This document provides strategies for increasing retention of students in science, engineering, and mathematics courses. Science Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge a few of the many people who provided assistance with various elements of my work over the past decade. This can produce a deficit in training that leaves many STEM faculty feeling uncertain about inclusive teaching practices and their essential undergirding principles. Assistive Technology: This a term used to include assistive, adaptive, rehabilitative, and instructional technology used for people with disabilities to fully be part of society and classrooms and it also includes processes of selecting, locating, and using the technology without inconveniencing or disrupting the learning processes of both SWD and the typically learning students. Students’ sense of belonging within a classroom community helps them develop a value for the tasks of the class as well as a sense of competence, or self-efficacy, regarding those tasks (Zumbrunn et al., 2014). Additionally, it is important for the instructors to have supportive networks of their own, and it will be meaningful for instructors interested in classroom transformation to engage with organizations that provide supportive communities and materials throughout the change process. A search for articles on inclusive teaching in the biological sciences used several strategies as it was difficult to find materials that directly addressed this issue. While the literature has shown extraordinary benefits of this intentional incorporation of affect, some questions still remain regarding the mechanisms by which those effects work. Special Education: The process and practice of educating students in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs in a school and any other environment. This is a curated list of educational resources on various Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) topics. Murphy, M. M., Steele, C. M., & Gross, J. J. In Bull, P. H., & Keengwe, J. In this sense, these components are not entirely discrete. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Inclusive classroom settings are arranged in a different ways to attain mastery in learning among a diverse group of learners. Technology integration familiarization affects teachers’ implementation and usage for instructional purposes. In those contexts, asking students to publicly perform their understanding may be counterproductive. How can STEM course designers balance explicit incorporation of broader campus inclusive practices with the demands of high–content volume disciplines? The Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University of Michigan provides reflective strategies for faculty to examine the impact of social identity on teaching. Understanding how our at-birth identities has informed our social and professional pathways is a key component of understanding inclusive behaviors writ large (Aschaffenburg and Maas, 1997). Pedagogical practices that improve sense of belonging and self-efficacy help reinforce a classroom climate that is inclusive. One of the most regularly cited reasons is the nagging attrition gap between students from historically disenfranchised identities and white students (Chen, 2015; Estrada et al., 2016). The research basis for inclusive education. This requires having students actively reflect on various aspects of their own personalized learning processes. Haak, D. C., HilleRisLambers, J., Pitre, E., & Freeman, S. Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology, The campus racial climate: Contexts of conflict. A major result of efforts to develop empathy and dialogue with students is the development of a positive classroom climate, which is an essential component of an effective, inclusive learning environment (Freeman et al., 2007). Others point to demographic shifts that will result in classrooms that are more ethnically diverse in the coming decades (Keller, 2001). Inclusion Defined. We also thank William Pierce and Thea Clarke for their efforts in producing the Evidence-Based Teaching Guides website. In what specific ways are classroom visits by campus service providers beneficial to the social and academic experiences of STEM students? Thus, making inclusive pedagogical choices in this context requires choosing options based on all the components that promote educating the whole student and not solely focusing on whether the choice is “active.” As they make pedagogical choices, instructors can consider these approaches summarized in the guide and the settings in which they were investigated, focusing on making choices that can help their students develop science identity as well as to engage deeply with their content. Inclusive Science Inclusive Science gathers together a variety of activities, investigations, games, quizzes and interactive resources. Science Classroom: Classroom where the main purpose and emphasis is the teaching and learning of science subjects like chemistry, biology, physics and other closely related scientific courses. The first principle of universal design theory is the “what” of … The publication is a by-product of many workshops relating to the teaching of science … To develop a fuller understanding of how higher education has historically been stratified and how this has impacted them, instructors can explore the extensive work on the history of higher education and class, such as work from hooks (1994), Hurtado (1992), and Thelin (2011). Because interactions with peers are a key part of a positive classroom climate, one of the most important steps an instructor can take is to establish norms of mutual respect and support that govern student–student interaction in the course and to uphold those norms consistently and clearly. 22, 28 July 2020 | CBE—Life Sciences Education, Vol. What is inclusive education? Plus, check out Building Equity in the Science Classroom. However, there is often less emphasis on including the voices of the students. This philosophy, founded in dialogue, serves as the basis upon which a respectful classroom climate is developed, progressive pedagogical techniques are implemented, and the power of the community is leveraged. Inclusive classrooms are necessary, because equitable education does not privilege one demographic over the other. 1, 29 December 2020 | Journal of Chemical Education, 7 December 2020 | Ecology and Evolution, Vol. In this context, inclusion is built on the quality of the social relationship, which in turn relies on a knowledge of its participants. Use a variety of instructional formats. 1, 1 October 2020 | CBE—Life Sciences Education, Vol. When thinking about how to foster a supportive classroom and promote students’ sense of belonging, instructors need to consider stereotype threat, a phenomenon described over the course of two decades by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and colleagues (e.g., Steele and Aronson, 1995; O’Brien and Crandall, 2003; Murphy et al., 2007), summarized in Whistling Vivaldi (Steele, 2010).