2016; solar cell modules. Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies are not yet well developed. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Springer; 2014. pp. During this process, the plastic components are burnt at 600°C. to 4,500 GW by 2050. Meanwhile, Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Among the recycling technologies used to treat a PV module, flat glass recycling is particularly common. Total collection rate for WEEE in 2014 as a percentage of the average weight of EEE put on the market in the. Encapsulation of the PSCs inhibited the release of hazardous substances, but did not completely eliminate the release of metals. The EU directive [8] established recycling targets in terms of module weight and also expresses the intention to increase the collection rates to allow the progressive recycling of more material and less to be landfilled. These high levels may be attributed to the welding materials used on the rear side of crystalline-Si (c-Si) solar cells. There is potential to develop new pathways for PV waste management industry development and offer employment and prospects for both public and private sector investors. In 2014 the Environment Ministry of Japan, through NEDO, together with private companies, began working on new technologies to pry the PV modules apart. The use of hazardous metals like lead, cadmium in solar photovoltaics (PVs) are rapidly increasing which poses the risk to the environment due to potential release of these constituents. Thin-film solar cells were developed with the aim of providing low cost and flexible geometries, using relatively small material quantities. Sectors like PV recycling will be essential in the world’s transition to a sustainable, economically viable and increasingly renewablesbased The chemicals necessary for their fabrication can be released into the environment during their disposal or following damage, such as that from natural disasters. Photovoltaic recycling technologies studied worldwide. To reinforce the recycling option, currently only Europe has mandated a strong regulatory guideline, however, other nations are preparing to set up particular system for solar panel waste management. The research on solar photovoltaic panels' management at the end of life is just beginning in many countries, and there is a need for further improvement and expansion of producer responsibility. Summary of PV cycle recycling process for c-Si modules [25]. The company has developed and patented original processes using mechanical and chemical treatment to recycle solar cells [47]. For example, high temperature thermal processes and mechanical processes can create impu-, rities. (1,731 GW), India (600 GW), the United States (US) (600 GW), Japan (350 GW) and Germany (110 GW). The currently dominant tech-, nologies are cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and amor-, Thin-film solar cells were developed with the aim of providing low, tries, using relatively small material quantities. For c-Si, the recycling strategy significantly reduces the EPBT (a factor of 1.8 is observed from the 100% virgin to the 100% recycled scenario) when considering an identical PV module efficiency and a significant decrease in Global Warming Potential (GWP), expressed in g CO2 eq per kWh, is also observed with a 20% reduction in the more extreme case. 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain; 2005. To achieve the best possible results at, acceptable costs, it is essential that future recycling processes stay up. 22. Ministers agreed that the state of Victoria would, lead innovative programs that seek to reduce the environmental impacts caused throughout, the lifecycle of photovoltaic systems. Because of that, there should be a, continuous focus on scientific evidences on the potential impacts and, Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies, oped. In addition to the commercially available LCA tools, prospective suggestions based on the latest digital technologies are made. In addition, definition of mandatory requirements for EoL treatment could still be an obstacle to the, effective acceptance of these recycling processes [20]. film photovoltaic modules. Solar modules have a lifespan of up to 25–30 years [18] and so there has been limited interest in investigating the aspects of EoL so far. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. PV modules are largely recyclable. The outcomes of this process are the recovery of more than 84% of, the module weight, being 90% of the glass and 95% of the semiconductor materials [44]. Many works on PV panel recycling (60% of papers cited in this review) were focused on the treatment of Si-panels (Doni and Dughiero, 2012, Kang et al., 2012, Kim and Lee, 2012, Huang et al., 2017, Shin et al., 2017), whereas fewer studies presented the development of recycling processes allowing for the treatment of different panels technologies (Pagnanelli et al., 2016, Pagnanelli et al., 2017). After that process, the glass is separated again. This study identifies the importance of encapsulating PSCs and the welding materials on the rear side of c-Si solar cells to minimize the release of toxic substances into the environment. are expected to account for the largest shares of global PV waste in the future, as outlined by case studies in this report. The article provides transparent and disaggregated information on the end-of-life stage of silicon PV panel, which could be useful for other LCA practitioners for future assessment of PV technologies. The company manages the collection and transportation of EoL modules to the recycling centre; however, the recycling process itself must be financed. materials to pay for the associated costs of the steps of recycling processes [69]. Moreover. The unprofitability of the current methods does not mean that the recycling of PV modules should be discarded. Basically, thin-film modules consist of thin layers of semiconducting material (CdTe, CIGS or a-Si) deposited on a substrate (glass, polymer or metal) (Figure 3). These are equivalent to 4% of installed PV panels in that year, with waste amounts by the 2050s PV Cycle is a not-for-profit organization which goal is to manage PV waste through their waste management programme for solar PV technologies [42]. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. The company is developing a process of reclaiming efficient cells from damaged solar modules. Contact our London head office or media team here. In limited cases, such as in Japan or the US, general waste regulations may include panel testing for hazardous material content as well as prescription or prohibition of specific shipment, treatment, recycling and disposal pathways. 2012; in their manufacture use and disposal. The current study presented an overview of possible PV recycling process for solar modules, including c-Si and thin-film technologies. This bill is currently pending United States Environmental Protection Agency approval [16]. In recent years the end-of-life (EOL) management of photovoltaic (PV) panels has started to attract more attention. This is 0.1%-0.6% of the cumulative mass of all installed panels (4 million metric tonnes). Several studies have analyzed the impacts of recycling, environment. The study highlights that the impacts are concentrated on the incineration of the panel׳s encapsulation layers, followed by the treatments to recover silicon metal, silver, copper, aluminium. The summary of this process is shown in Figure 7. While current research into solar panels has focused on how to improve the efficiency of the production capacity, the dismantling and recycling of end-of-life (EOL) panels are seldom considered, as can be seen, for instance, in the lack of, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. As a, result of the increase, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at, the same rate in the near future. TCLP results from broken MoSCs revealed that metals leached at relatively high levels: Al: 182 mg/L, Ni: 7.7 mg/L, and Cu: 3.6 mg/L. As a result of the increase in the global market for PV energy, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at the same rate in the near future. Methods Different EoL management strategies are being explored in the industrial and academic fields, such as recycling, remanufacturing and reusing. However, the end-of-life phase has been generally excluded or neglected from these analyses, mainly because of the low amount of panels that reached the disposal yet and the lack of data about their end of life. plastic incineration and some chemical and mechanical treatments (sieving, acid leaching, electrolysis, and neutralization) for the, ments have the potential of producing environmental, tant to note that no process can recycle 100% of recovered materials from solar modules, Nevertheless, for the PV Cycle [25] c-Si recycling process it was shown that there is a signifi-, cant decrease in Global Warming Potential impacts (up to 20% compared to the process of, making cells) [66] and for CdTe modules, there is and environmental benefit from the glass and, When comparing c-Si recycling and landfill EoL scenarios it was found that the environ-, mental impacts from the recycling process are lower than, recycled resources go back to the PV cells and modules manufacturing. In USA, some states go beyond the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which regulates hazardous and non-hazardous waste management [13]. recycling mono or multicrystalline silicon modules begins with the separation of the alumi-, num frame and the junction boxes and then a mechanical process is used for the extraction of, the remaining materials of the module (a process similar to recycling of glass or electronic, waste). Furthermore, the estimation of solar waste PV, its categorization, management approaches, country guidelines and recycling of waste PV panels, were mainly focused in this study. Several studies have identified valuable components such as FTO, gold and high temperature processes as the most significant contributors to the environmental impact of PSCs. Findings of our study indicate that proper measures should be taken in the high pollution processes such as polysilicon production and cell processing. In 2012 the Japanese government introduced a, electricity generated from renewable energy and, growth of solar module installation in the country. recycling, life-cycle, photovoltaic, waste, end-of-life, 30 years [18] and so there has been limited, ). The company manages the, collection and transportation of EoL modules to the recycling centre; however, the recycling, process itself must be financed. Renewable and Sustainable Energy, based on byproduct minerals: A case study of tellurium. Additionally, before the recycled silicon from solar cells can be used again, further chemical treatment is necessary, as well as for silver and aluminum. Silicon solar modules recycling processes. for facile perovskite solar cell recycling. PDF | On Jul 11, 2018, Marina Monteiro Lunardi and others published A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, s Republic of China. distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For CdTe thin film modules, the results confirm the environmental benefit when recycling of glass cullet and copper is considered. • Regular-loss: Assumes a 30-year lifetime for solar panels, with no early attrition; Hence, adequate end-of-life (EoL) management for PV modules must be developed. A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules Marina Monteiro Lunardi, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, José I. Bilbao and Richard Corkish Additional information is available at the end of the chapter ... A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules. This, process can recover up to 98% unbroken cells depending on the conditions of the module and, the thickness of the cells. CdTe, CIGS and a-Si are the main technologies for thin-film PV modules [36]. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si) PV module-recycling processes. Waste and, silicon photovoltaic modules. Perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3 and related materials have reached impressive efficiencies that, on a lab scale, can compete with established solar cell technologies, at least in short-term observations. For example, high temperature thermal processes and mechanical processes can create impurities. FirstSolar [21] has an established recycling process for CdTe, but for other thin films there are still room for improvements. 1st, Current feasible processes. The results from broken PoSCs indicated the release of 43.9 mg/L of Cu and 6.6 mg/L of Pb, which are higher than the TC limits. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the Euro-. Hence, the ideal outcome can only be achieved with a combination of thermal, chemical or metallurgical steps [29, 61]. It was shown that recycling technologies for PV wastes are extensively explored not just on labs and pilot plants, but some are also commercially available. Whereas, there is no doubt, that solar energy will play an important role in the future of world’s energy sector, the issue of solar PV waste is still obscure. 12th European Photovoltaics Confer-. During the next 4–6 h the semiconductor films are removed in a slow leaching drum. Der Mensch hat sich zunächst den Lagerstätten mit den höchsten Konzentrationen zugewandt und wird nunmehr zukünftig gezwungen sein, mit immer weniger konzentrierten Vorkommen zurechtkommen zu müssen. Silicon solar modules recycling processes. Higher uncertainties are obtained for the crystalline Silicon production, manufacturing, recycling, solar cell processing and module fabrication due to greater environmental impact, also the parameter causing error are high. Preliminary estimates suggest that the raw materials technically recoverable from PV panels could cumulatively yield a value of up to USD 450 million (in 2016 terms) by 2030. The problem of utilization and recycling become a cornerstone, since these processes can also affect the environment and accelerate The authors focused on the recycling of crystalline silicon, a material used in more than 90% of installed PV systems in a very pure form. However, this will not occur before 2025, according to some forecasts [68]. It contains significant amounts of cadmium (Cd), an element with relative toxicity, which presents an environmental problem that has been studied worldwide [37, 38]. Also, the environmental impacts of PV systems due to the current linear business model that is in practice are discussed. This report presents the first global projections for future PV panel waste volumes to 2050. chemical substances contained in the product and to inform the waste disposal companies. It starts with a physical fragmentation of the modules. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. It is expected that by 2050 that figure will increase to 5.5-6 million tons. The importance of cycle lanes and its need is discussed through survey of pedestrians and cyclists. Hence, methods for recycling solar modules are being developed worldwide to reduce the environmental impact of end-of-life modules and to recover some of the value from old PV modules. The company has developed and patented original, processes using mechanical and chemical treatment to recycle solar cells [47]. of 2016, cumulative global PV waste streams are expected to have reached 43,500-250,000 metric Their particularly short energy payback time (EBPT) in comparison to other established PV technologies makes them truly competitive. However, the prediction for 2050 is that the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed 15 billion US dollars (equivalent to 2 billion modules, or 630 GW) [7]. Environmental benefits (i.e. The challenges to design the ideal PV recycling process are many. The installations of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules are growing extremely fast. FirstSolar [21] has, an established recycling process for CdTe, but for other thin films there are still room for, improvements. The falling cost of solar has made renewable energy accessible to more people than ever before and has resulted in an exponential increase in solar adoption. It Today, process, which starts by pyrolising the modules. Purpose The company is developing a process of, from damaged solar modules. It places the module between two rollers, which move it along, steady until it runs into a 1 meter-long steel blade (, Furthermore, some innovative treatment processes for recycling PV solar modules, Loser Chemie has some collection points from where they gather several types of, systems (c-Si, CdTe, CIGS and GaAs). to recycling. CdTe is the most widely used thin-film technology. When comparing c-Si recycling and landfill EoL scenarios it was found that the environmental impacts from the recycling process are lower than for landfill, assuming that the recycled resources go back to the PV cells and modules manufacturing. The problems with this process are that the value of the material recovered is low (as it, is a downcycling process) and that the maximum amount of recovered materials is about. It accounts for about half of the energy, carbon footprint, and cost to produce PV modules, but only a small portion of their mass. The summary of these processes is shown in Figure 8. makes setting up specific recycling plants for solar modules uneconomical. The better knowledge of these technologies and growth on the waste amounts that could generate profitable outcomes has supported the development of the first PV recycling plants. This is equivalent to the amount of raw materials currently needed to produce approximately 60 million new Furthermore, the International Technology Roadmap for Photovoltaic. In 2012 the Japanese government introduced a “feed-in tariff” [14] that guaranteed the rate for electricity generated from renewable energy and exported to the grid, which supported rapid growth of solar module installation in the country. + Develop a sound, This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. Lastly for recycling processes aiming to generate new materials, the aim is to keep the materials intact for reuse or direct recycling, recovering the frame, glass, tabbing and solar cells without breakages and in good condition. Feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic: The rise of Japan. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. This bill is cur-, In Australia, governments have recognized the, are in place to deal with the PV waste issue. However, there are some exceptions. 2014; for a recast of the WEEE directive. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. There is potential to develop new pathways for PV waste, management industry development and offer employment and prospects for both public, Photovoltaic (PV) solar modules are designed to produce renewable and clean energy for, © 2018 The Author(s). This review can provide a quantitative basis to support the recycling of PV panels, and suggests future directions for public policy makers. The summary of these processes is shown in, Reclaim PV has teamed up with major solar module manufacturers who distribute in Australia, and is refining its processes. lines on how to properly dispose of EoL photovoltaic modules. An overview of possible thin-film recycling processes is show in Table 2. Solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment has grown at unprecedented rates since the early 2000s. Granata et al. Despite frequently voiced concerns about the solubility of the lead salts that make up the absorber material, several life cycle analyses have come to overall positive conclusions regarding the environmental impact of perovskite solar cell (PSC) production. Summary of first solar recycling process for CdTe modules [21]. This process recovers 90% of the glass for use in new, products and 95% of the semiconductor materials for use in new, Also, for recycling CdTe modules, ANTEC Solar GmbH designed a pilot plant with a similar. The information is condensed in this snapshot report in order to provide the best preliminary overview of global PV market development. For copper indium selenide (CIS) and Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic modules similar chemical bath treatments apply. This study discussed on the risk of hazardous chemical species releasing from PV modules and criteria of PV panel waste classification. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Final Report, ENV. The recovery of valuable materials during the recycling of PV modules can have great economical value. The recycling process starts with the shredding of the modules into large pieces and subsequently in to small fragments (5 mm or less) by a hammer mill. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. However there is still incentive to improve, considering that most. Emphasis is also laid upon the enhancement of material recovery rate and discovering environmentally amiable substance for recycling. Regulation will help, but it might not be the only way. in time to meet the expected surge in panel waste. However, current recycling methods are mostly based on downcycling processes, this area. The process is based on a sequence of physical (mechanical and thermal) treatments followed by acid leaching and electrolysis. PV modules are largely recyclable. It’s clear that sustainable development of the PV industry should be supported by regulatory frameworks and institutions across the globe, which is not the case at the moment. economic feasibility, recovery of more materials, and recovery of unbroken cells), still remain in process efficiency, complexity, energy requirements and use of non-environmentally friendly materials for the treatment of some elements. This step of the, system [44]. and are being tested and for generation 3 (new materials [22]) the recycling technologies are not well developed yet. 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The recovered material injected back into the economy can serve for the production of new PV panels or be sold into global commodity markets, thus increasing the security of future raw material supply. Marina Monteiro Lunardi, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, José I. Bilbao and Richard Corkish (February 15th 2018). This company started recycling in 2003 with a pilot plant using a thermal process. The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. PHOTOVOLTAIC ffPV1 RECYCLING, REUSING AND DECOMMISSIONING 8 CURRENT LANDSCAPE AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR STANDARDIZATION 5 csagroup.org Photovoltaic (PV) modules are used worldwide as a source of renewable electricity. [Accessed: 14-02-2018]. 2010; International Conference on PV Module Recycling; 2010, taic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE; 2012. validation of crystalline silicon solar cells recycling by thermal and chemical methods. In 2016 their process of recycling PV achieved a record recycling rate of 96% for c-Si PV modules (fraction of solid recycled) [25], which is a percentage that surpasses the current European WEEE standards. Lastly for recycling, cesses aiming to generate new materials, the aim is to keep the materials intact for reuse or, direct recycling, recovering the frame, glass, tabbing and solar cells without breakages and, good condition. As the global PV market increases, so will the volume of decommissioned PV panels. [20] Weckend S, Wade A, Heath G. End-of-Life Management Solar Photovoltaic Panels. Currently, Europe is the only, modules, including c-Si and thin-film technologies as well as an overview of the global, legislation. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy) shared about 70% of the global power. Silicon solar module basic structure [32]. Moreover, currently only Europe has a strong regulatory framework in place to support recycling, but other countries are starting to build specific frameworks related to PV waste. IEA-PVPS collects information from official governmental bodies and reliable industry sources. lead and tin, this can result in significant environmental pollution issues. However, the concentrations of these elements in the leachate were within the toxicity characteristic (TC) limits. Given heavy metals present in PV modules, e.g. Although PV recycling modules are energy intensive, their implementation compensate for the energy used for producing virgin modules. modules. people during their lives produce many waste, as the consumption is an integral part of any person. By 2050, the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed USD 15 billion, equivalent to 2 billion panels, or 630 GW. For years, the PV industry and researchers have worked intensively in search of different types of efficient and cost-effective materials to manufacture solar PV modules and specific ways of keeping them adequately bonded to withstand several years of outdoor exposure. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. So far, recycling processes of c-Si modules results in a net cost activity when compared to, landfill (due to the avoidance of the true environmental costs and externalities for the latter), but these processes can ensure the sustainability of the supply chain in the long-term, increase. Making of the solar cells and module fabrication holds for a greater contribution into the environment effect than in the processing of the silicon from the nature to further use in industry. Table 1 summarizes the recycling possibilities for silicon solar modules, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each process.

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