Both sent envoys to the Dalai Lama requesting mediation. Golden Era of 17th Century. Tibetan forces briefly subdued the natives for brief periods of time during 7th and 8th centuries. Independent kingdoms were formed under independent rulers that mostly were from Tibetan royal family. In 1989, he was appointed as India’s ambassador to Mongolia. At a young age, he was recognized as the 19th incarnation of Arhat Bakula, one of the 16 direct disciples of Lord Buddha. Ladakh was an independent country since the middle of the 10th century. After hectic negotiations, the Indian Government agreed to grant both the districts of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Councils on the model of the one granted to the Gurkhas. He was not only a strong monarch but a statesman, a diplomat and a builder. Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushana empire. In early 1999, as the Lahore Summit was taking place between India and Pakistan, Pakistani troops occupied vacant Indian military posts in the area around Kargil with an aim to cut-off Ladakh from Kashmir and force Indian military from the Siachen glacier and ultimately force India to negotiate on the Kashmir issue. The Dogras retreated but the Ladakhis failed to take advantage of this success. Elections were held for the Council and the Indian National Congress swept to power. It was certainly against the aristocratic norms if not the royal norms. In 1940, during the Lhasa Monlams Chhenmo or the Great Prayer Festival of Lhasa, he achieved the first rank or the Geshes Lharampa Degree, the first Ladakhi to do so. In post-independence Ladakh, Kushok Gyalsras Bakula Rinpoche, a direct descendent of the last independent king of Ladakh, emerged as the de facto leader of Ladakh. The history of Ladakh can be traced in a better way after the 9th Century. Ladakh exported grains to Western Tibet. The Kingdom of Ladakh was at its greatest extent under King Tsewang Namgyal. The tomb of Rinchen Shah located in Srinagar. Bhagan, a later Basgo king reunited Ladakh by overthrowing the king of Leh. Bakula Rinpoche’s supporters formed Congress A with the focal point of its activities being the Leh Khangsar Mansion. Ladakh was an independent country since the middle of the 10 th century. The earliest population of Ladakh has been asserted to be that of Dards or Brokpas. The Ladakhi forces retreated to the fortresses of Basgo and Tigmosgang. Kushok Bakula Rinpoche was born on 25th May, 1918 into the Matho branch of the Royal House of Ladakh. Leh Bazar and Leh Palace built by Sengge Namgyal, photo taken in 1873. Soon after, Prince Tashi Namgyal, actively backed by the Queen Mother, was given Purig with its capital at Mulbeek as a separate kingdom much to the consternation of the nobles. He commissioned the construction of many monasteries in Ladakh including the popular Hemis Monastery. In 2002, Ladakh, Leh district in particular, witnessed the dissolution of political parties and the coming together of politicians under one banner. The King, Tsepel Tondup Namgyal, was deposed and Leh Lonpo Ngorup Stanzin was made the ruler while the Crown Prince Tsewang Rabstan fled to Shimla. He moved up the Losar (New Year) celebrations by 2 months. Gulab Singh, a vassal of Sikh King, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, sent a force of 5000 men under the command of Zorawar Singh, Wazir (Governor) of Kishtawar, to conquer Ladakh. Bakula Rinpoche vehemently opposed this attitude in his 1952 speech in the State Legislative Assembly and drew the attention of the world to the plight of the Ladakhis. He was awarded Padma Bhushan, India’s third highest civilian award, in 1989 for his contribution to the society. China gained control of its portion of Ladakh when its forces entered the region in the early 1960s. The primary inhabitants of this land are believed to be the Brokpas. Leh, which is currently the capital of Ladakh, was initially chosen as the headquarters of Ladakh Division then. The Dogras appointed Wazirs or governors to look after the day to day administration of Ladakh Wazarat (province) which also included Baltistan. His role in uplifting the people of Ladakh from dire straits earned him the sobriquet of ‘The Architect of Modern Ladakh’. And the Dogras took Leh. Independent kingdoms were formed under independent rulers that mostly were from Tibetan royal family. Ladakh, August 4 to 6, 2010 The region experienced a spate of cloudbursts and subsequent flash floods over and above a 12.8 mm of rainfall. [7] [8] Ladakh was divided, with Lower Ladakh ruled by King Takpabum from Basgo and Temisgam, and Upper Ladakh by King Takbumde from Leh and Shey. Group of women in front of the Jama Masjid mosque in Leh built in the 17th century, photo taken in 1934. He even planned to invade present day Xinjiang. In 1988, Thupstan Chhewang became the President of Ladakh Buddhist Association (LBA) while, Nawang Rigzin Jora became the General Secretary. The looms are portable and are made from wood, rope, wool and metal. Right from the outset, Ladakh was neglected by the government based in Srinagar. In the ensuing peace treaty, signed at Tigmosgang, Ladakh lost the Ngaris Skorsoom region to the 5th Dalai Lama. Later, with the help of the Mughal Army under Fidai Khan, Deldan Namgyal defeated the 5th Dalai Lama invasion in the plains of Chargyal, which is situated between Nimoo and Basgo. The Kingdom of Ladakh was established around 950 CE when the early Tibetan Empire collapsed. He facilitated the education of the masses and raised the issue of the need for all round development of the region at every forum. The Mongols came from Tibet as nomads and gradually overpowered the Mons and Dards. Matters came to a head between Tashi Namgyal and Phuntsog Namgyal. Local shepherds alerted the Indian troops to the presence of Pakistani troops. It is strategically important because of the border situation. In 1842, Zorawar Singh led an expedition to conquer Ngaris. Buddhism spread into western Ladakh from Kashmir in the 2nd century. In 1926, he left for Tibet to pursue higher studies. Tribal raiders backed by Pakistan invaded the state. Lhachen Utpala, who most probably reigned from 1080-1110, conquered present day Kullu and forced it to pay a tribute and for a time being Ladakh became the paramount power in the Western Himalayas. Recent research shows that Ladakh was ruled by the Brokpas during this period. In 2001, he was awarded Polar Star by the Mongolian Government for his efforts in reviving Buddhism in the country. Ladakh Photography Tour; Capture the high mountains of Ladakh, Whispers of Secrets of Himalayas: Ladakh with Zanskar Tour. He married a princess of the Royal House of Zangla. The Chronicles of Ladakh, written in 17th century, leaves a huge gap during the 12th century. © 2021 Leh-Ladakh Taxi Booking.Leh-Ladakh Taxi Booking is committed to your privacy. King Tashi Namgyal (1555–1575) managed to repel most Central Asian raiders, and built a royal fort on the top of the Namgyal Peak. He converted to Islam and reigned as the first Muslim king of Kashmir from 1320-1323. In between, the Dogras agreed to withdraw if the Ladakhis pay a nominal tribute. The heir-apparent to the throne, Jigmet Singey Namgyal, was crowned as the King of Ladakh. As news of it reached Ladakh, a final uprising, supported by the Tibetans, against the Dogras. About Ladakh history, the earliest inhabitants of Ladakh were the Khampa nomads, who domesticated yaks. Ladakh sent military expeditions into Baltistan throughout the 18th century with great success. The State Government refused to grant the Council any real powers. The forces clashed at Langkartse. After a week of fierce fighting, Kalon Dorjey Namgyal was mortally wounded. The then ruler of Ladakh, Tshespal Namgyal was dethroned and exiled to Stok by General Zorawar Singh and Ladakh came under the Dogra Rule. The history of Ladakh can be divided into three periods: the ancient period (till 10th century AD), the medieval period (10th century-19th century) and the modern period (19th century-till date). The entire region came out onto the streets demanding political autonomy. Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir invaded Ladakh in the mid-15th century. History of Ladakh. By the end of July, the conflict was officially over. In 1949, Communist China occupied Tibet and in 1959, after a failed rebellion against the Chinese occupation, the Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees fled their country and the Indian Government gave them asylum. He also promoted horse polo in Ladakh. Jetzt kaufen! Before the referral of the matter to the United Nations, Ladakh proper was cleared of these tribals. It has borders with China in the north and Tibet in the east. She gave birth to a son, Phuntsog Namgyal. Dawa Shah Srangar (on horseback), leader of the Lopchak Mission to Tibet. The effect of his removal soon became apparent and led to the invasion by the Dogras. It was also agreed upon that only the eldest son would succeed to the throne while the younger ones would enter the clergy. In 2019, Ladakh became a union territory. The Kingdom of Ladakh at its greatest extent under King Tsewang Namgyal. From Xinjiang, came textile and fine breed horses which was fashionable among the Ladakhi nobility. He was, however, defeated by a combined force of Baltis and Mughals at Bod Kharbu in 1639. In the 8th century, Ladakh was annexed by Tibetan Empire. Upper Ladakh was ruled by King Takbumde from Leh and Shey, and Lower Ladakh was ruled by King Takpabum from Basgo and Temisgam. As the situation became untenable for Pakistan, both militarily as well as diplomatically, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif flew to Washington DC, where he agreed, after meeting with US President Bill Clinton, to withdraw troops from across the Line of Control, the border between India and Pakistan. According to The Chronicles of Ladakh, his rule extended from Gilgit in west to Namrims in the east. A dispute arose between Nyima Namgyal and Deskyong Namgyal over the marriage of Princess Tashi Wangmo to the King of Kishtawar. Official figures say it claimed 255 lives. From Tibet, came pashmina, shahtoosh (Antelope wool), fur and the rare musk pods which were also found in Ladakh. He was later defeated by the Mughals who had already conquered Kashmir and Baltistan. There was growing discontent within the aristocracy regarding the division of the kingdom and the unlawful succession of Putit Wangmo and her son, Phuntsog Namgyal, to the throne. It is located between the Karakoram Mountains in the north and the Himalayan mountains in the south. By this time, the Kalon of Stog, had acquired vast amount of royal lands by unlawful means. Grab the deal and start packing your bags for an indelible holiday with Tour My India. By then, Kalon Bangkapa Morup Stanzin had raised a force of 2000 men and rallied the retreating Ladakhi forces. Several mercantile families emerged in Ladakh during the Dogra period. He won by a record margin. He was elected member of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly from 1952-1967 and represented Ladakh in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House of Indian Parliament, from 1967-1977. Its main objective was to obtain Union Territory status for Ladakh. A hastily constructed airstrip hastened their arrival. Despite stiff resistance, Indian troops regained the peaks hitherto occupied by the enemy. The first groups of people to settle in Ladakh were Mons and Dards. During the reign of Sengge Namgyal, who was known as the Lion King, constructions in Ladakh were in full swing. Ladakh has been contested by India and Pakistan since the dissolution of British India in 1947; after the cease-fire agreement of 1949, its southeastern portion went to India and the remainder to Pakistan. Tagspa Bum Lde outlawed animal slaughter and build the Chamba (Maitreya) Temple in Leh while Tagspa Bum build the Fortress of Tigmosgang. The eldest son, Pal Gyi Gon received Ladakh, with its capital at Shey, the second son, Tashi Gon received Ngaris, and the third son, Detsug Gon received Zangskar and Spiti. Compounding the problem was the decision to levy custom duties on Kashmiri traders by King Tashi Namgyal of Purig. For details, please read our Privacy Policy. Jamyang Namgyal’s son, Sengge Namgyal, came to the throne in 1616. Ladakh can hardly be considered a separate political entity before the establishment of the kingdom about 950 CE, after the collapse of the early Tibetan Empire and the border regions became independent kingdoms under independent rulers, most of whom came from branches of the Tibetan royal family. His Prime Minister was Basgo Kalon Tsewang Tondup. The following year, the Ladakhis were soundly defeated. Traditional Ladakhi dresses have also enabled people of Ladakh to protect themselves from the gruelling weather, especially winter chill. Ladakh was administratively attached to Kashmir, and subsequently to the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir upon its inception in 1846. The combined Ladakhi and Mughal forces clashed with the Tibeto-Mongol forces near Basgo. In 2004, Thupstan Chhewang contested the General Elections as its candidate. Tsetan Namgyal succeeded his father as king. It is soaked deep in history and holds a significant value for the members of the society. Ladakh was divided into two parts: Upper Ladakh and Lower Ladakh. His eldest son, Saskyong Namgyal had ordained as a monk at the Hemis Monastery. Nevertheless, it became a significant element in Ladakhi politics. In 1956-1957, China constructed a road through the Aksai Chin region which was disputed since 19th century. King Singge Namgyal had consolidated the Ladakhi Empire into a strong kingdom. The tribal raiders came within 10 miles of Leh town where a local militia force held out long enough for the Indian forces to come to the rescue. However, his stepmother, Queen Putit Wangmo, proved too powerful. Tagspa Bum Lde became the King of Upper Ladakh while his younger brother, Tagspa Bum, became the King of Lower Ladakh. In the winter of 1834-35, he outflanked the Dogras and wiped out their garrison in Kargil. When the king decided to act against him, he took refuge in Mulbeek. A brief introduction of Ladakh is given below that sums up everything you need to know about this newly formed Indian Union Territory: The history of Ladakh can be traced in a better way after the 9th Century. Nyima-Gon, a representative of the ancient Tibetan royal house founded the first Ladakh dynasty after the breakup of the Tibetan Empire in 842 CE. When the Partition of the Indian subcontinent took place in 1947, the princely states were given 3 choices: to join the Indian union or Pakistan or to remain independent. The Ladakh Union Territory Front was formed. Barely had the Dogras suppressed it, the entire kingdom rose up in arms. U.S. After the collapse of the Mughal Empire by the beginning of the 19th Century, Raja Gulab Singh, under the suzerainty of the Sikh monarch Ranjit Singh, sent General Zorawar Singh for invading Ladakh in 1834. The Tibetans were defeated near present day Tangtse and a treaty was signed which ended the conflict. Livestock has not only provided food to the native people of Ladakh but also wool for clothing. The Dogras kept the old aristocracy intact, merely giving them new titles and responsibilities. Jamyang Namgyal came to the throne after his brother, Tsewang Namgyal. Nyima Namgyal died at Mulbeek in 1738. In August 2019, a reorganisation act was passed by the Parliament of India which had a provision to reconstitute Ladakh as a union territory, separate from Jammu & Kashmir. An early king, Lde-dpal-hkhor-btsan (c. 870 -900) was responsible for the construction of several monasteries in Ladakh, including the Upper Manahris Monastery. By the later mid of 20th century, Tibetan refugees started to pour into Ladakh. Likewise, his second son had been recognized as the reincarnation of Panchen Lama. Thupstan Chhewang became the first Chief Executive Councillor. Ladakh was captured by Dogras and the famous Sino-Sikh war took place. He convened a council at Hanley in 1761 where all the disputed parties and the aristocracy gathered. There he was instrumental in reviving Buddhism which earned him the title of Elchin Bagsha or the Ambassador Teacher. . For However, after facing some protest, Leh and Kargil were announced to jointly serve as the divisional headquarters. Areas under Ladakhi rule rose in revolt. . His son, Deldan Namgyal acceded to the throne. But before the recognition of the boy, the couple divorced. They again clashed near Spituk and the Tibeto-Mongol forces were pursued till Tashigang in present day Ngaris, where they barricaded themselves in a fort. He took on the surname Namgyal (meaning victorious) and founded a new dynasty which still survives today. India launched Operation Vijay to clear out the intruders and mobilized troops on a large scale in the Kargil sector. Ladakh is the highest plateau in India, with the majority of which is more than 3,000 metres high. On 5th August, 2019, the Indian Parliament abolished the Article 370 of Indian Constitution, which gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, and reconstituted the state into two Union Territories: Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory and Ladakh Union Territory. The history of Ladakh can be divided into three periods: the ancient period (till 10th century AD), the medieval period (10th century-19th century) and the modern period (19th century-till date). They had a son, Saskyong Namgyal and a baby prince who was later recognized as the reincarnation of Panchen Lama, the second most powerful figure in Tibet. Tashi Namgyal would continue to rule Purig till his death after which it would revert back to the King of Ladakh. Medieval history of Ladakh (1,300 AD to 1,800 AD) For nearly two centuries till about 1600, Ladakh was subject to raids and invasions from neighbouring Muslim states. The present day Gya-Meru area was the first to be settled. He was however ousted from the office and soon died thereafter. They agreed to help on one condition that the King would convert to Islam and build a mosque in Leh. He divided his domains between his three sons. Deldan Namgyal, the successor of Sengge Namgyal had to make a treaty with the Mughals and as a symbol of it, he allowed Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb to build a mosque in Leh. Under him, Ladakhi forces, under Kalon Bangkapa Shakya Gyatso, took control of Purig in Western Ladakh and managed to pacify the Chos (Princes) of Baltistan. History of Ladakh: | | ||| | Map of Kashmir with modern Ladakh highlighted in ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Cho of Gya asked the ruler of Ngaris, Skyid-Lde Nyimagon for assistance. The earliest inhabitants of Ladakh in the ancient times are believed to be a mix of nomadic herdsmen from the Tibetan plateau and a small group of early Buddhist refugees from northern India called the monks. The period between mid-15th century to mid-16th century is mired in darkness. And the Pashmina wool trade became the exclusive domain of Kashmiri traders. A Cultural History of Ladakh | | ISBN: 9788191007800 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. History of Ladakh can be traced back a rather long way. Tsewang Tondup proved to be an able administrator. Amnesty was granted to the Kalon of Stog. But he repulsed a Mongol invasion of Guge. In 2005, a breakaway faction of the LUTF joined the Indian National Congress and contested the Council Elections, which it lost badly. He took on the surname Namgyal (meaning victorious) and founded a new dynasty which still survives today. His third son, Tsewang Namgyal, was the heir apparent. But his forces were decimated by a Tibetan force. Later, Bhagan, a king from Lower Ladakh of the Basgo Dynasty, defeated the king of Leh and took on the surname Namgyal (victorious), and founded a new dynasty which still survives today. Bhagan, a later Basgo king reunited Ladakh by overthrowing the king of Leh. The two forces again clashed near Chang La. He died on 4th November, 2003 in New Delhi. He was not only a strong monarch but a statesman, a diplomat and a builder. The word ‘Ladakh’ emanates from a local word, ‘La Dak’, meaning ‘land of the mountain passes’ — ‘La’ (mountain passes) and ‘Dak’ (country). 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